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Comparative analysis of fiber laser and YAG laser

一、Fiber laser
Optical fiber is usually a glass solid fiber pulled by SiO2, which is widely used in optical fiber communication. Its light guiding principle is the total internal reflection mechanism of light. Generally, bare fiber is composed of a central high refractive index glass core (9-62.5um in diameter), a low refractive index silicon glass cladding (125um in core diameter) and the most external strengthening resin coating.
Fiber can be divided into single-mode fiber and multi-mode fiber. Single mode fiber: the center glass core is thinner (9um+0.5um in diameter), and only one mode light can be transmitted. The mode dispersion is very small, and it has the function of self mode and mode limiting. Multimode fiber: the central glass core is coarse (50um+1um), which can transmit a variety of modes of light, but the dispersion between the modes is large, and the transmitted light is impure.

Fiber laser has the advantages of small volume, low power consumption, high stability, long service life, maintenance free, multi band, green environmental protection and other features, it is superior to the beam quality, stable performance, high photoelectric conversion efficiency, has won numerous laser industry recognition. Fiber laser has established a new standard for laser processing industry because of its high reliability, excellent beam quality and low operation cost.
It has the advantages of long gain medium, high coupling efficiency, good heat dissipation, simple and compact structure, flexible and convenient use, good output laser beam quality and wide output wavelength range (400 ~ 3400nm)。
<1>、high power
High power fiber lasers are double clad fiber, the pump to the outsourcing layer, the energy is absorbed and partially converted into the laser, so the effect of material and structure of fiber laser cladding, currently has developed all kinds of optical fiber shape, a rectangular shaped D round,,, unstable cavity shape, plum shaped, square, flat shaped thread etc..
<2>、No need for thermoelectric cooler
This high-power wide face multimode diode can operate at very high temperatures with simple air-cooled and low cost.
<3>、A wide range of pump wavelengths
The active cladding fiber doped with erbium / ytterbium rare earth element in high-power fiber laser has a broad and flat absorption area (930-970nm), so the pump diode does not need any type of wavelength stabilizer.
Pump light passes through single-mode fiber core many times, so its utilization rate is high.
<5>、high reliability
(1)、The branch fiber direct welding coupling side of a pump, without any optical element, two can avoid damage of fiber end, the three is easy to improve the injection pump.
(2)、The centipede type side pump novel: both sides of the optical fiber and LD fiber have many branches of direct welding of single fiber, pumped from different points, can avoid the deterioration of strong single point laser induced nonlinear effect and mode.
(3)、Using multiple high power LD single tube instead of LD integrated array as pumping source, one can improve the mode of light source, two is easy to pump source heat dissipation, improve service life, three is conducive to maintenance and replacement.
(4)、Using LD (100-250us) with wide emitting surface as pump source can greatly reduce the optical power density of LD luminous point and improve its lifetime, generally up to 100000 hours.
     The fiber laser consumes only 1% of the energy required for the lamp pump laser, and its efficiency is more than two times higher than that of the diode pumped solid-state laser (Nd laser system). The combination of higher efficiency, longer service life and less maintenance makes the cost of the owner of the fiber laser extremely attractive. Fiber lasers play an important role in the applications of lasers requiring near infrared high beam quality. They have a special interest in small focus spots and high power density, such as desktop production. A beam of 100W laser output spot can be focused to as small as 5um, which is equivalent to the brightness of 109W/cm2. Now the application of positioning of fiber laser welding, including: selective standard application moment, all kinds of art imaging, annealing, micro mechanical devices, 1~2mm bending stainless steel parts such as cutting (and power).
Application of fiber laser is very extensive, including laser optical fiber communication, laser spatial distance communication, industrial shipbuilding, automobile manufacturing, laser engraving and laser marking, laser cutting and printing, metal cutting, drilling, welding, fiber laser can be used as a military laser beacon light source; in the Navy, the fiber laser can be used submarine communication, detection and measurement of deep sea, torpedo underwater sensing and sea based light weapons. Military and national defense security, medical instruments and equipment, large-scale infrastructure construction and so on.
The price is high, usually confined to the metal processing field, and it is unlikely to make any difference in the non-metallic processing. Materials such as plastics, paper or cloth. These industries will continue to rule by CO2 laser, compared with the traditional laser cutting machine, it can not only the advantages of optical fiber cutting plane cutting, cutting angle can also be used, and the edge is neat and smooth, suitable for cutting metal plate, glass and other high precision. Compared with common carbon dioxide laser cutting machine, it saves space and gas consumption, photoelectric conversion rate is high, is a new product of energy saving and environmental protection, is also one of the world’s leading technology products.
The electro-optical conversion efficiency with high fiber laser cutting machine, the electro-optical conversion efficiency of 25%, electro-optical conversion efficiency than the traditional laser cutting machine several times higher, and the comprehensive operation cost is only 15% of the traditional laser cutting machine. At the same time, the fiber laser cutting machine is small in size, its laser generator covers less than 1 square meters, the overall area of about 50 square meters, for the traditional laser cutting machine 2/3.
二、YAG Laser
    YAG laser is a solid state laser based on yttrium aluminum garnet crystal. The chemical formula of yttrium aluminum garnet is Y3Al5O15, referred to as YAG. Like other solid lasers, the basic components of YAG lasers are laser working materials, pumping source and resonant cavity. However, due to the activation of ion species doped crystals in different pumping source and pump cavity structure in different ways, the different structure, and other functional devices using different YAG laser can be divided into a variety, such as the output waveform can be divided into continuous wave YAG laser, YAG laser and pulse repetition frequency according to the working wavelength of laser; divided into 1.06 mYAG laser, frequency doubled YAG laser, Raman shift YAG laser (lambda =1.54 m) and a tunable YAG laser (such as color center laser); according to YAG laser doping can be divided into Nd:YAG, Ho, Tm, laser doped Er crystal shape; divided into rod and slab YAG laser; according to the output power (energy) is different, can be divided into high power and small power YAG laser.
Solid laser cutting machine the wavelength of 1064nm pulse laser beam passing through the beam expander, reflection, focusing, surface radiation heating materials, surface heat through the heat transfer oriented internal diffusion, the precise control of width, laser pulse energy, peak power and repetition frequency parameters, instantly making the material melt vaporized, and through the NC system to achieve predetermined trajectory cutting, welding, punching.

The machine has the advantages of good quality, high efficiency, low cost, stability, safety, precision and reliability. It integrates cutting, welding, drilling and other functions into one, and is an ideal precision, high efficiency and flexible processing equipment.
■The processing speed is fast, the efficiency is high, and the economic benefit is good.
■Straight cut small, smooth cutting surface, can obtain a large aspect ratio and aspect ratio.
■The thermal deformation is very small, and can be processed on hard, brittle, soft and other materials.
■There is no tool wear, replacement problem, no mechanical change.
■It is easy to realize automation, and can be processed under special conditions.
The pump efficiency is high, up to about 20% (light Pu pump efficiency of only a few percent) with the improvement of efficiency, the heat load of laser medium is decreased, thus greatly improving the quality of life (the life of LD beam length of tens of thousands of hours, pulse up to 1011 times), high reliability, small volume, light weight, suitable for small applications.
    It is suitable for laser cutting, welding and punching of metal materials, such as carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, aluminum and alloy, copper and alloy, titanium and alloy, nickel molybdenum alloy and other materials. It is widely used in aviation, aerospace, weapons, ships, petrochemical, medical, instrumentation, microelectronics, automotive and other industries. Not only the processing quality is improved, but also the work efficiency is improved. In addition, YAG laser can also provide an accurate and fast research method for scientific research.
4、Compared to other lasers (mainly referred to as CO2 lasers):
<1>、YAG laser can be operated in two ways: pulse and continuous. Its pulse output can obtain short pulse and ultra short pulse by adjusting Q and mode-locked technology, so that its processing range is greater than CO2 laser;
<2>、The output wavelength is 1.06um, more than just CO2 10.06um laser is one order of magnitude, so that the metal coupling high efficiency, good processing performance (effective power a 800WYAG laser equivalent to 3KWCO2 laser power);
<3>、YAG laser is compact in structure, light in weight, simple and reliable in use, and low in maintenance requirement.
<4>、YAG laser can be coupled with optical fiber. By using time division and power division multiplexing system, a laser beam can be easily transmitted to a number of workstations or remote distance stations, which is flexible for laser processing.
Therefore, in the choice of the laser, we should take into account various parameters, as well as their actual needs, the only way to allow the laser to play its maximum efficiency.
Contact Person: David Guo
Telephone: +86-21-59970419 ext 8008
Email: sales@cycjet.com
Website: http://www.cycjet.com/


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